About 50 cases of heart valve disorder in the country every year There are lakhs of cases but surgery is needed. It is only in percentage. Heart valve repair started in 1923 But the first valve replacement surgery was done in 1962 It was done by replacing the erotic valve by Oxford surgeon Alfred Gunning. The heart valve used as a replacement is made of tissue from the heart of a cow or pig.
In the name of heart diseases, most people know only heart attack, heart failure, cardiac arrest or blockage, but apart from these there is also a life-threatening problem – heart valve disorder i.e. leakage (leakage) in the heart. If it is severe then surgery (valve repairing/replacement) is the only treatment for which as on date it costs at least thirty lakh rupees. According to a report by the World Health Organization, there are about 5 million cases of heart valve disorder in our country every year, but surgery is needed in only 5 percent. Heart valve repair was started in 1923, but the first valve replacement surgery was performed in 1962 by Oxford surgeon Alfred Gunning by replacing aortic valve. The heart valve used as a replacement is made of tissue from the heart of a cow or pig.
What do valves do?
Heart valves ensure that blood flows forward and not back. When the valves fail to close properly due to a malfunction, blood leaks or returns to the heart. There are four valves in our heart – tricuspid, pulmonary, mitral and aortic. As the heart beats, the flaps in these valves open and close, allowing blood to flow in the right direction through the heart’s upper (atrium) and lower chambers (ventricles) into the body.
The tricuspid valve is located between the right atrium and right ventricle, the pulmonary valve is located between the ventricle and pulmonary artery, the mitral valve is located between the left atrium and left ventricle, and the aortic valve is located between the left ventricle and the aorta. In addition to the right and left atria, blood flows through the tricuspid and mitral valves into the right and left ventricles, when they are closed, blood cannot return to the arteries. Tricuspid, pulmonary and aortic valves have three flaps each but mitral valve has only two flaps.
The filling of blood causes the ventricles (ventricles) to constrict, so that when the pulmonary and aortic valves open due to the pressure created, blood flows again into the pulmonary and aorta. The pulmonary artery (artery) that carries blood from the heart to the lungs is deoxygenated, the aorta (the largest artery) carries oxygenated blood to the rest of the body.
In medical science, the leakage of blood from the valve is called regurgitation and the narrowing of the valve opening is called stenosis. The proper functioning of the valves is dependent on the correct combination of regurgitation and stenosis. Valve defect does not mean that the person will die if not treated, it really depends on what and what is the defect in the valve. Complications such as stroke, heart attack and blood clots if left untreated can lead to death.
How many types of valve discord?
Mitral valve prolapse: It is also called flippy valve syndrome, click-murmur syndrome, balloon mitral valve or Barlow syndrome. This occurs when the mitral valve does not close properly, allowing blood to flow back into the atrium. Most people with mitral valve prolapse have no symptoms and do not need treatment. Symptoms such as nervousness, shortness of breath, chest pain, fatigue and cough emerge in only 20 percent of people, in which case treatment is needed, in more severe cases valve replacement.
Bicuspid aorta valve disorder: It is a genetic disease, in which a person is born with a defective aortic valve which has two flaps instead of three, whereas a healthy person has three flaps in the aortic valve. In very few cases it is detected at birth, people keep on working properly for years despite this defect in the valve. Most people become aware of this defect in adulthood when they experience symptoms such as shortness of breath, chest pain, dizziness and fainting while working. 80 percent of people suffering from this disorder are cured by surgery but this is possible only when the sufferer undergoes surgery at the age of 30 to 40 years.
Volvular Stenosis: In this condition, due to the non-opening of the valve, sufficient amount of blood is not able to flow. This disorder can occur in any valve of the heart, usually when the valve becomes thick or hard. This causes symptoms such as chest pain, difficulty in breathing, fatigue, dizziness and fainting. Most people with valvular stenosis do not need treatment. Only 5% have to replace the valve, if it is detected early, then the problem is solved with valvuloplasty, which is a procedure like non-incisional stenting.
Volvular Regurgitation: If not closed properly, the valve starts leaking, causing difficulty in breathing, fatigue, nervousness, dizziness and swollen ankles. Its effect varies from person to person, some need only care, not treatment, some work with medicines, while some require valve replacement.
What symptoms appear on valve failure?
The symptoms of valve failure depend on how blood flow is being affected by the disorder. If the disorder is mild or moderate, there are no symptoms. In severe cases, symptoms such as difficulty in breathing, heart palpitations, fatigue, chest pain, dizziness, fainting, headache, cough and pulmonary edema (watering of the lungs) emerge.
Why does the valve malfunction?
There are many reasons for valve failure, such as congenital defects, infective endocarditis, rheumatic fever, calcium deposits in the heart, heart attack, narrowing or hardening of the arteries, cardiomyopathy, syphilis, high blood pressure, aortic aneurysm, abnormal Inflammation, atherosclerosis, weakening of connective tissues in the mitral valve, and lupus.
How to confirm valve failure?
When symptoms emerge, doctors listen to the sound of the heart with a stethoscope to confirm this, if they find irregularities in the heart rate, listen to the sound of the lungs to confirm valve defects. Water accumulation in the lungs means valve failure. Chest X-ray, electrocardiogram, cardiac catheterization, MRI scan and stress tests are done to confirm the disease.
What is the treatment for valve failure?
Once a valve defect is confirmed, doctors treat it based on the severity of the disorder and the symptoms. At the beginning of the treatment, the patient is kept under medical supervision and asked to quit smoking, change diet and adopt a healthy lifestyle. If the disorder is likely to be cured by medicines, then medicines like beta blockers, calcium channel blockers, diuretics, vasodilators are given, these medicines may have to be taken for a long time or for a long time.
In severe cases, surgery is required, in which the patient’s own tissue, a deceased person’s donated valve, bovine valve, porcine valve or artificial valve is used as a replacement.
It is a good option to use bovine as a biological valve, ie cow tissue as valve. In this, the strong and flexible tissue surrounding the cow’s heart is taken, processed before surgery to prepare it in such a way that it can be transplanted into the human body without negative immunodeficiency. The life of a valve made from cow tissue is 10 to 15 years. Some research has revealed that if the patient adopts a healthy lifestyle, then it lasts for 20 years.
Another biological valve called a porcine valve is actually a pig heart valve, which has been used in the human body for nearly 20 years. Completely safe and reliable, the life of this valve is ten years, in some people it can even last 15 years.
Volvuloplasty is used in the treatment of stenosis. In volvuloplasty, the doctor inflates a small balloon in the heart to increase the size of the opening valve, when the size of the valve is correct, then the balloon is taken out.
What approach to take?
The victim’s outlook will depend on how severe his heart valve disorder is. Some valve disorders require only regular monitoring and medications, while some are only corrected by surgery. If symptoms appear, consult a doctor immediately. If the doctor has prescribed medicines, then take them regularly and adopt a healthy lifestyle by quitting smoking, alcohol consumption. Most valve disorders are cured by medicines, if the doctor asks for valve replacement, then do it as soon as possible otherwise other valves may also get damaged. Arrhythmia or irregular heartbeat can later become a serious valve disorder, so get treatment immediately as soon as it is detected.