In the last fifty years, the extinction of wild vegetation took place in India.
In the last fifty years, India witnessed the highest extinction of wild vegetation. One of the major reasons for this is the indiscriminate felling of trees and plants. But there are many other reasons as well. Such as the decreasing interest of people towards the conservation of vegetation, drought or floods and the tendency to consider vegetation as a part of life is also decreasing.
The biggest reason for the extinction of plant species in the coming decades will be the destruction of tropical forests. This warning has been given in a study by the Washington-based World Resources Institute. Significantly, fifty percent of the vegetation of the entire flora is found in tropical forests. They maintain the balance of nature. In maintaining the natural balance of the earth, more than humans, wild animals and plants have a role. Therefore, their extinction will have a profound effect on nature. In view of this threat, in the last three decades, most countries have started serious efforts for the conservation of wildlife and flora, but they have not yielded any concrete results so far.
Statistics show that more than nineteen thousand trees and plants on the earth have come on the verge of extinction. These extinct plants come under biodiversity extinction. According to this, if the natural habitat of a wild animal is reduced by seventy percent, then fifty percent of the species living there will reach the state of extinction. This suggests that there is a complementarity of symbiosis in wild fauna and flora. Therefore, as much as it is necessary to save the flora from extinction, so also the wildlife. Statistics and research show that half of the world’s wild tree species are on the verge of extinction. This has increased the risk of forest ecosystem collapse on a global scale. In this regard, ‘State of the World’s Trees Report’ was also released recently. In this, in an international study conducted till five years ago, the existence of seventeen thousand five hundred and ten species of wild trees has been found to be in serious danger.
Significantly, this figure is 29.9 percent of the total known eighty eight thousand four hundred and ninety nine species of trees globally. In the study, the existence of 7.1 percent of other species has also been found to be in danger. The study states that the current status of 21.6% of the species could not be analyzed in detail, while the existence of 41.5% of the species was found safe by the researchers. The study has recorded the highest number of endangered species in Brazil, one thousand seven hundred and eighty-eight. In this, mahogany, rosewood etc. are prominent. At the same time, many species of trees have been found in danger in Europe and North America, which are considered less rich in terms of vegetation diversity. The main reason for this has been given due to the panic of insects and excessive use of insecticides.
According to the State of the World’s Trees report, Brazil has the highest risk of extinction of wild vegetation. According to the study, out of eight thousand eight hundred and forty-seven species found in Brazil, one thousand seven hundred eighty-eight or twenty percent of the wild flora are at increased risk of extinction. Similarly, out of five thousand eight hundred and sixty eight wild flora found in Colombia, eight hundred thirty four, or fourteen percent, are on the verge of extinction. Of the five thousand seven hundred and sixteen wild flora found in Indonesia, one thousand three hundred six or twenty three percent of the vegetation is in danger of extinction.
The situation in lush green Malaysia is almost the same. Statistics show that out of five thousand four hundred and twenty two wild flora found in Malaysia, one thousand two hundred and fifty-five i.e. twenty four percent are going through this crisis. Significantly, Malaysia is such a country where people are very aware about forests and flora. Four thousand eight hundred and twelve wild vegetation is found in the small country of Venezuela, in which six hundred and fourteen ie thirteen percent are on the way to extinction. And out of four thousand six hundred and eight flora found in China, the world’s most populous country, eight hundred ninety ninety nine percent of the wild vegetation is in danger of extinction. One thing is clear from these figures that there is a state of indifference and negligence in almost all countries towards the protection and conservation of flora. It is worth noting that people are getting more or less insensitivity towards wildlife.
In the last fifty years, India witnessed the highest extinction of wild vegetation. One of the major reasons for this is the indiscriminate felling of trees and plants. But there are many other reasons as well. Such as the decreasing interest of people towards the conservation of vegetation, drought or floods and the tendency to consider vegetation as a part of life is also decreasing. Due to the expansion of multinational companies, the destruction of the vegetation of that area and the indiscriminate exploitation of water by them, all the useful vegetation became extinct forever. Government and non-government efforts were confined to those areas where the responsibility of protection of vegetation was entrusted to the Forest Department.
Internationally, one hundred and ninety four countries have signed an agreement to prepare a Biodiversity Action Plan for the conservation of endangered and other threatened species. Actually, the people of the old generation used to see trees and plants as ‘friends’. Despite the lack of scientific understanding of botany, people believed that animals and plants were an important part of their life. A happy life cannot be imagined without them. So there was awareness among the people. This is the reason why grassroots movements were also launched in India and other countries to stop the indiscriminate felling of trees. In India, the Apiko movement was launched in Karnataka. That’s how the Chipko movement started. The forest dwellers of Jharkhand launched a movement to save the forest. Its effect was that in 2006, the then Central Government passed the Forest Rights Act. But in India, despite this, the cutting of trees and plants and the destruction of small vegetation continued to happen wildly. As a result, all the valuable vegetation became extinct forever.
In the last fifty-six years, man has become increasingly distant from nature. Rather it would be more accurate to say that he has destroyed the forests in his own interest. This is also happening in countries where strict laws have been enacted against the destruction or cutting of wildlife and flora and there is awareness among the people in many cases. If we see, the fear of law among the people is not as it should be. Secondly, man has assumed his monopoly on every object or element on earth. He finds his life, his happiness and his selfishness the most important thing. The feeling of complementarity of companion and friendship is gone. Therefore, there is a need to create awareness among the people about the protection of the earth along with stopping the excessive exploitation. As long as people do not increase the sense of conservation and protection towards wildlife and flora, then the threat of extinction of wildlife and flora cannot end.